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If courses are taken to satisfy both degree requirements and Core Curriculum requirements, then students may need to take additional courses in order to meet the minimum number of semester credit hours required for this degree. Thyroid hormones T 3 T 4 Calcitonin Thyroid axis. Just throw the microwave safe container in the trash. The program is extremely easy to use. Adipocytes interact with other cells through producing and secreting a variety of signalling molecules, including the cell signalling proteins known as adipokines.
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Development, organization, and delivery of appropriate physical activities for children through the adolescent stage. Some fieldwork observation experiences may be required.
Laboratory exercises demonstrating principles of exercise physiology. Topics include metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular responses to physical activity and exercise. A study of the adaptation and effects of the body to physiological stress. Emphasis will be placed on the physiology of training, metabolism and work capacity, and electrocardiography.
Health Related Fitness Assessment Laboratory. This course includes laboratory and clinical measurements of aerobic capacity, balance, body composition, electrocardiography, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and pulmonary function. Students are required to demonstrate competence in administering health related physical fitness.
Health Related Fitness Assessment. A study of the principles and concepts of fitness measurement. Topics include graded exercise testing, electrocardiography, assessment of aerobic capacity, body composition, flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and pulmonary function. Fitness Programming and Exercise Prescription. A study and application of principles and concepts related to designing exercise programs. The target population includes apparently healthy adults and individuals with special considerations, including cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy, and children.
A detailed examination of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems. This course focuses on bones. The etiology and pathophysiology of common sport and exercise related injuries to the musculoskeleton will be introduced. Laboratory examination of the skeletal system may be required. An investigation of psychological processes and behaviors related to participation in exercise and physical activities.
Psychological effects of exercise, motives for fitness, exercise adherence, and fitness counseling. This course is designed to introduce students to a variety of therapeutic modalities currently used in clinical rehabilitation.
Application of test, measurement, and evaluation theory. Emphasis is on proper selection and administration of tests, appropriate evaluation of test results using basic statistical procedures, and assignment of grades. Introduction to Sport Psychology.
This course involves an in-depth study of the psychological factors that underlie and support human behavior and performance, particularly as it relates to sports. This course introduces contemporary and practical theories regarding mental processes and applicable uses for this information. Formerly titled "Psychosocial Aspects of Exercise and Sport. Evaluation of Athletic Injuries. This course deals in depth with issues related to athletic training, including assessment of injuries, and proper taping and wrapping techniques.
Formerly titled "Advanced Athletic Training. Teaching Secondary Physical Education. Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to the teaching and learning of physical education in the secondary school curriculum.
Contemporary programming, behavior management strategies, and community outreach activities will be emphasized. Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the secondary school level is required. Restricted course; advisor code required for registration. In-depth study of exercise physiology, emphasizing application of physiological principles of training for physical fitness and sport performance, graded exercise testing, and professional issues.
This course includes introduction to research in exercise physiology. This course examines various therapeutic exercises and programs used in the treatment and rehabilitation of exercise-related injuries. This course will address the basic concepts of nutrition from a scientific basis, applying these concepts to understanding of food nutritional labeling, dietary recommendations for health and fitness, as well as exercise or sport performance enhancement.
This course will examine the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for exercise physiology practiced in clinical settings. Topics will include diseases of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic systems. Skills in administering graded exercise testing with ECG monitoring, pulmonary function testing, and screening for metabolic disease will be emphasized in laboratory settings. Additionally, exercise prescription and programming will be studied for persons with chronic disease.
Teaching Elementary Physical Education. Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to teaching and facilitating learning of physical education in the elementary school curriculum. Contemporary programming, problem solving, and community outreach activities will be emphasized.
Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the elementary school level is required. Study of concepts of movement awareness and the elements of movement that are the basis of all movement capacities. Application of these concepts to the learning of motor skills will be included. Laboratory exercises demonstrating the principles of motor learning and motor control.
Functional applications of motor control and learning theory in skill instruction and sports performance. Motor learning laboratory hours are required. Theory of coaching relevant to athletics. Emphasis on organization and content involved in coaching sports.
The sport content may vary in different semesters between baseball, basketball, football, soccer, softball, and volleyball. Course may be repeated for credit. A developmental and functional approach to the study of disabilities in physical activity. Legislation, pathologies, and adaptation principles.
Field experience is required throughout the course. Clinical Applications of Athletic Injuries. Consent of instructor and admission to the Athletic Training concentration or Kinesiology and Health Science concentration.
This course provides practical applications in prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of athletic injuries, and includes hours of supervised field, laboratory and clinical experiences in athletic training. May be repeated for credit for a maximum of 6 semester credit hours. Practicum in Kinesiology Research.
Admission to Kinesiology major and consent of Instructor. This course provides supervised research experience in various areas of kinesiology. May be repeated for credit, but not more than 6 semester credit hours will apply to a bachelor's degree. Supervised internship with appropriate agency in the field of kinesiology. First Aid and CPR certification and consent of instructor. Supervised coaching practicum with appropriate agency in the field of kinesiology. Formerly titled "Practicum in Kinesiology.
Organized course offering the opportunity for specialized study not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings. Students will learn and apply counseling techniques to promote the adoption of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in diverse populations. Basic counseling theories will be introduced. Capstone course and seminar for students pursuing training and certification in exercise science, and preparation for graduate studies.
Introduction to Nutritional Sciences. Basic concepts related to the classification and functions of nutrients; the process of digestion, absorption, transport, utilization, and storage of nutrients in humans and the interaction between diet and health. Applied Food Science Practicum. The application of concepts related to the chemical, physical, sensory, and nutritional properties of food in menu planning, food preparation, and recipe modification.
Introduction to Nutrition and Dietetics Careers. Nutrition and Dietetics majors only. General overview of nutrition and dietetics as a profession, including career opportunities, scope of practice, credentialing, code of ethics, and collaboration with other disciplines. Self-directed modules on medical terminology, word roots, prefixes and suffixes will be integrated into the course content.
Practicum related to the procurement, preparation, and delivery of food in large foodservice operations. Concepts related to the chemical, physical, sensory, and nutritional properties of food in menu planning, food preparation, and recipe modification. Nutrition and Health Assessment. Methods, tools, and interpretation of data in assessing the nutritional status of individuals including dietary, anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessment, as well as other measurements of health in individuals and the community.
Nutrition Counseling and Education. Discussion of theories of learning and behavior modification, models and techniques, communication skills, evaluation methods, and cultural competence in nutrition counseling and education; and application of concepts to facilitate behavioral change. Nutrition in the Life Span. Nutritional needs during various stages of the lifecycle as influenced by physiologic, cultural, and environmental factors.
Production and Foodservice System Management I. Principles related to the menu planning, food sanitation and safety, procurement, production, marketing, and materials management in foodservice operations Generally offered: Advanced discussion of nutrient structure, function and interaction, metabolic pathways, and regulation and integration of metabolism. Application of learned strategies in meaningful community service through collaborative tasks performed at various community programs.
Service learning activities are aimed at enriching the life experiences of students through civic responsibility and community outreach.
Nutrition Care Process Practicum. A problem-based approach to dietetics practice using case simulations and studies; application of basic nutritional assessment skills, nutritional diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring in different settings; practice skills in counseling and nutrition education.
Theories and principles related to the foodservice, systems management including leadership, decision-making, human resources, and financial management of operations. Medical Nutrition Therapy I. Pathophysiology and the application of the nutritional care process in the treatment of simple human diseases and conditions, part 1. Nutrition-related issues in public health, various community resources, agencies, and programs involved in health promotion and disease prevention.
Nutrition in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Medical Nutrition Therapy II. Continuation of Advanced Medical Nutrition I; and review of the pathophysiology and the application of the nutritional care process in the treatment of more complex human disease and conditions.
Current Issues in Nutrition. In-depth discussion and analysis of emerging trends, concepts, and controversies in nutritional sciences, including application of evidence-based principles in the discussion.
Independent Study in Nutrition and Dietetics. An exploration of topics of interest to the student in Nutrition and Dietetics. Students work under the close supervision of a faculty member to conduct research, intense study, or a project related to the selected topic. Introduction to Public Health. Introduces students to the discipline of public health.
It will cover a variety of disciplines to the basic tenets of public health. The course will also cover the role of public health in a global society. Data Management in Public Health. Study of the skills required to design, organize and implement a data management system in public health applications. It will cover an introduction to data preparation for statistical analysis, development of organizational tools, methods of data acquisition, data collection form design, principles of database development, quality control of data, and data security.
Provides the student with basic knowledge about epidemiological applications in a behavioral area. It covers behavioral and social environmental issues related to disease etiology, premature morbidity and mortality patterns.
Provides an overview of the epidemiology of specific health-related behaviors, the relationships between these behaviors and health outcomes, and available evidence for the effectiveness and appropriateness of various approaches to modification of these behaviors. Utilizes case discussion seminars to appraise the investigative methods and research designs for studying disease outbreaks and new epidemics. Historical and current cases will include examples of disease outbreaks e.
Each case will evaluate the background of the problem, the investigative methods employed, the results, and the interventions taken to resolve the problem. Utilizes case discussion seminars to appraise the investigative methods and research designs for studying chronic disease, disease exposure, and ascertainment of risk.
Cases will include current examples of chronic diseases or conditions affecting population health e. Each case will evaluate the background of the problem, the investigative methods employed, the results, and the public policy and practice implications from the research.
Provides the opportunity for work experience in a private or public health-related agency. Opportunities are developed in consultation with faculty advisor and on-site coordinator. Supervised full-or part-time off-campus work experience and training in health care management.
A minimum of hours of work experience is required. Individual conferences and written reports required. Special Studies in Public Health. The University of Texas at San Antonio. Department Honors The Department of Kinesiology, Health, and Nutrition awards Department Honors to certain outstanding students and provides the opportunity for advanced study under close faculty supervision.
Admission Policy The goal of admission requirements for the Health degree is to provide undergraduate students with a program of study with the highest possible standards. To declare a Health major, a pre-health student must have: Internship Eligibility Health majors are eligible to apply for an internship if they: Appeal Process Students who wish to appeal the internship requirement due to prior work experience may do so by completing and submitting the appeal form, available from the academic advisor, with written documentation to a three-member review committee.
Core Curriculum Requirements 42 semester credit hours Students seeking the B. Core Curriculum Component Area Requirements First Year Experience Requirement 3 semester credit hours All students must complete the following course, for a total of 3 semester credit hours: Select at least 15 semester credit hours from the following list of courses: Internship Policy Experiential learning is a valuable element for kinesiology professionals. Internship Eligibility Kinesiology majors with no concentration are eligible to apply for an internship if they: In order to declare a major in Nutrition and Dietetics, a student must meet the following criteria: Must complete all support courses and most of the Texas Core requirements with a minimum cumulative grade point average GPA of 3.
Detailed information about the courses, including the Texas common course numbers may be obtained from the Undergraduate Catalog. May not repeat a prerequisite course more than twice to meet the grade criteria. Must complete all support courses prerequisite courses by the end of the summer semester prior to entering the program in the Fall Semester. Must submit a program application, two completed reference forms program specific preferably by faculty members and a statement indicating personal career goals, knowledge of the profession, commitment, interests, and motivation.
Must have a personal interview with the program faculty by invitation. Criminal Record Check A criminal background check is required during the semesters in which a student enrolls in field-based practicums.
Certificate in Athletic Coaching All students pursuing a Certificate in Athletic Coaching must complete the following 15 semester credit hours: Send Page to Printer. Download PDF of this page. Download PDF of the entire catalog. Select 15 semester credit hours of the following: Select at least two of the following four courses: Additional designated electives can be taken from the following courses: All candidates for this degree must complete up to 23 hours of free electives to meet the hour minimum for the degree, including a sufficient number of electives at the upper-division level to meet the UTSA minimum of 39 upper-division hours.
Academic Inquiry and Scholarship core. Freshman Composition I Q core. I ordered the protein powered box not the protein powered home style box. This box was okay I like the other box better as far as diet food goes.
Ajzlab, March 8, Used to have Snacks in it - not anymore. Had bought those for some time now over the years and it used to have Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner, Snacks and the Turbo-Shake in it. Now it doesn't come with the Snacks anymore. SilkeE, June 28, See all 7 reviews See all 6 reviews. See any care plans, options and policies that may be associated with this product. In regard to the hormone leptin, central vs peripheral refers to the hypothalamic portion of the brain vs non-hypothalamic location of action of leptin; direct vs indirect refers to whether there is no intermediary, or there is an intermediary in the mode of action of leptin; and primary vs secondary is an arbitrary description of a particular function of leptin.
In vertebrates, the nervous system consists of two main parts, the central nervous system CNS and the peripheral nervous system PNS. The primary effect of leptins is in the hypothalamus , a part of the central nervous system. Leptin receptors are expressed not only in the hypothalamus but also in other brain regions, particularly in the hippocampus.
Thus some leptin receptors in the brain are classified as central hypothalamic and some as peripheral non-hypothalamic. Generally, leptin is thought to enter the brain at the choroid plexus , where the intense expression of a form of leptin receptor molecule could act as a transport mechanism.
Increased levels of melatonin causes a downregulation of leptin,  however, melatonin also appears to increase leptin levels in the presence of insulin , therefore causing a decrease in appetite during sleeping. Mice with type 1 diabetes treated with leptin or leptin plus insulin, compared to insulin alone had better metabolic profiles: Leptin acts on receptors in the lateral hypothalamus to inhibit hunger and the medial hypothalamus to stimulate satiety.
Thus, a lesion in the lateral hypothalamus causes anorexia due to a lack of hunger signals and a lesion in the medial hypothalamus causes excessive hunger due to a lack of satiety signals. The absence of leptin or its receptor leads to uncontrolled hunger and resulting obesity. Fasting or following a very-low-calorie diet lowers leptin levels.
Leptin binds to neuropeptide Y NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus in such a way as to decrease the activity of these neurons. Leptin signals to the hypothalamus which produces a feeling of satiety. Moreover, leptin signals may make it easier for people to resist the temptation of foods high in calories.
The NPY neurons are a key element in the regulation of hunger; small doses of NPY injected into the brains of experimental animals stimulates feeding, while selective destruction of the NPY neurons in mice causes them to become anorexic. Once leptin has bound to the Ob-Rb receptor, it activates the stat3, which is phosphorylated and travels to the nucleus to effect changes in gene expression, one of the main effects being the down-regulation of the expression of endocannabinoids , responsible for increasing hunger.
It modulates the immune response to atherosclerosis, of which obesity is a predisposing factor. Exogenous leptin can promote angiogenesis by increasing vascular endothelial growth factor levels. Hyperleptinemia produced by infusion or adenoviral gene transfer decreases blood pressure in rats. Leptin microinjections into the nucleus of the solitary tract NTS have been shown to elicit sympathoexcitatory responses, and potentiate the cardiovascular responses to activation of the chemoreflex.
In fetal lung, leptin is induced in the alveolar interstitial fibroblasts "lipofibroblasts" by the action of PTHrP secreted by formative alveolar epithelium endoderm under moderate stretch. The leptin from the mesenchyme, in turn, acts back on the epithelium at the leptin receptor carried in the alveolar type II pneumocytes and induces surfactant expression, which is one of the main functions of these type II pneumocytes.
In mice, and to a lesser extent in humans, leptin is required for male and female fertility. Ovulatory cycles in females are linked to energy balance positive or negative depending on whether a female is losing or gaining weight and energy flux how much energy is consumed and expended much more than energy status fat levels.
When energy balance is highly negative meaning the woman is starving or energy flux is very high meaning the woman is exercising at extreme levels, but still consuming enough calories , the ovarian cycle stops and females stop menstruating.
Only if a female has an extremely low body fat percentage does energy status affect menstruation. Leptin levels outside an ideal range may have a negative effect on egg quality and outcome during in vitro fertilization. The placenta produces leptin. Leptin is also expressed in fetal membranes and the uterine tissue. Uterine contractions are inhibited by leptin.
Immunoreactive leptin has been found in human breast milk; and leptin from mother's milk has been found in the blood of suckling infant animals.
Leptin along with kisspeptin controls the onset of puberty. Leptin's ability to regulate bone mass was first recognized in Leptin decreases cancellous bone , but increases cortical bone. This "cortical-cancellous dichotomy" may represent a mechanism for enlarging bone size, and thus bone resistance, to cope with increased body weight. Bone metabolism can be regulated by central sympathetic outflow, since sympathetic pathways innervate bone tissue.
Factors that acutely affect leptin levels are also factors that influence other markers of inflammation, e. While it is well-established that leptin is involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response,    it has been further theorized that leptin's role as an inflammatory marker is to respond specifically to adipose-derived inflammatory cytokines. In terms of both structure and function, leptin resembles IL-6 and is a member of the cytokine superfamily. Similar to what is observed in chronic inflammation, chronically elevated leptin levels are associated with obesity, overeating, and inflammation-related diseases, including hypertension , metabolic syndrome , and cardiovascular disease.
While leptin is associated with body fat mass, however, the size of individual fat cells, and the act of overeating, it is interesting that it is not affected by exercise for comparison, IL-6 is released in response to muscular contractions. Thus, it is speculated that leptin responds specifically to adipose-derived inflammation. Taken as such, increases in leptin levels in response to caloric intake function as an acute pro-inflammatory response mechanism to prevent excessive cellular stress induced by overeating.
When high caloric intake overtaxes the ability of fat cells to grow larger or increase in number in step with caloric intake, the ensuing stress response leads to inflammation at the cellular level and ectopic fat storage, i. The insulin increase in response to the caloric load provokes a dose-dependent rise in leptin, an effect potentiated by high cortisol levels. This response may then protect against the harmful process of ectopic fat storage, which perhaps explains the connection between chronically elevated leptin levels and ectopic fat storage in obese individuals.
Although leptin reduces appetite as a circulating signal, obese individuals generally exhibit a higher circulating concentration of leptin than normal weight individuals due to their higher percentage body fat. A number of explanations have been proposed to explain this. An important contributor to leptin resistance is changes to leptin receptor signalling, particularly in the arcuate nucleus , however, deficiency of, or major changes to, the leptin receptor itself are not thought to be a major cause.
Other explanations suggested include changes to the way leptin crosses the blood brain barrier BBB or alterations occurring during development. Studies on leptin cerebrospinal fluid CSF levels provide evidence for the reduction in leptin crossing the BBB and reaching obesity-relevant targets, such as the hypothalamus, in obese people. Since the amount and quality of leptin receptors in the hypothalamus appears to be normal in the majority of obese humans as judged from leptin-mRNA studies ,  it is likely that the leptin resistance in these individuals is due to a post leptin-receptor deficit, similar to the post-insulin receptor defect seen in type 2 diabetes.
When leptin binds with the leptin receptor, it activates a number of pathways. Mice with a mutation in the leptin receptor gene that prevents the activation of STAT3 are obese and exhibit hyperphagia.
The PI3K pathway may also be involved in leptin resistance, as has been demonstrated in mice by artificial blocking of PI3K signalling. The PI3K pathway also is activated by the insulin receptor and is therefore an important area where leptin and insulin act together as part of energy homeostasis.
The consumption of a high fructose diet from birth has been associated with a reduction in leptin levels and reduced expression of leptin receptor mRNA in rats. Long-term consumption of fructose in rats has been shown to increase levels of triglycerides and trigger leptin and insulin resistance,   however, another study found that leptin resistance only developed in the presence of both high fructose and high fat levels in the diet.
A third study found that high fructose levels reversed leptin resistance in rats given a high fat diet. The contradictory results mean that it is uncertain whether leptin resistance is caused by high levels of carbohydrates or fats, or if an increase of both, is needed. Leptin is known to interact with amylin , a hormone involved in gastric emptying and creating a feeling of fullness. When both leptin and amylin were given to obese, leptin-resistant rats, sustained weight loss was seen.
Due to its apparent ability to reverse leptin resistance, amylin has been suggested as possible therapy for obesity. It has been suggested that the main role of leptin is to act as a starvation signal when levels are low, to help maintain fat stores for survival during times of starvation, rather than a satiety signal to prevent overeating.
Leptin levels signal when an animal has enough stored energy to spend it in pursuits besides acquiring food.