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The theory behind the diet is not the reason you will lose weight if you follow this plan. The focus is to eat vegetables, fruits, and high-fiber grains. Cutting out an entire food group may be too much of a restriction to maintain over the long-term, so some people do best by modifying this diet to allow for a moderate amount of meat. You are forced to take atleast 3 a day as a meal replacements to get their guaranteed weight loss. In , William Banting , a formerly obese English undertaker and coffin maker, published "Letter on Corpulence Addressed to the Public", in which he described a diet for weight control giving up bread , butter , milk , sugar , beer , and potatoes. Constipation is a common problem, and almost everyone has been constipated at one time or another.

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Most of Central America formed during the Pliocene to connect the continents of North and South America, allowing fauna from these continents to leave their native habitats and colonize new areas.

Climates during the Pliocene became cooler and drier, and seasonal, similar to modern climates. Ice sheets grew on Antarctica. The global cooling that occurred during the Pliocene may have spurred on the disappearance of forests and the spread of grasslands and savannas. Four major glacial events have been identified, as well as many minor intervening events. A major event is a general glacial excursion, termed a "glacial". Glacials are separated by "interglacials".

During a glacial, the glacier experiences minor advances and retreats. The minor excursion is a "stadial"; times between stadials are "interstadials". During interglacial times, such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions. The effects of glaciation were global. Antarctica was ice-bound throughout the Pleistocene and the preceding Pliocene. The Andes were covered in the south by the Patagonian ice cap.

There were glaciers in New Zealand and Tasmania. Glaciers existed in the mountains of Ethiopia and to the west in the Atlas mountains. In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one.

The Cordilleran ice sheet covered the North American northwest; the Laurentide covered the east. Scattered domes stretched across Siberia and the Arctic shelf. The northern seas were frozen. During the late Upper Paleolithic Latest Pleistocene c. According to Mark Lynas through collected data , the Pleistocene's overall climate could be characterized as a continuous El Niño with trade winds in the south Pacific weakening or heading east, warm air rising near Peru , warm water spreading from the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the east Pacific, and other El Niño markers.

The Paleolithic is often held to finish at the end of the ice age the end of the Pleistocene epoch , and Earth's climate became warmer. This may have caused or contributed to the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna , although it is also possible that the late Pleistocene extinctions were at least in part caused by other factors such as disease and overhunting by humans.

The small populations were then hunted out by Paleolithic humans. The Wrangel Island population became extinct around the same time the island was settled by prehistoric humans. Nearly all of our knowledge of Paleolithic human culture and way of life comes from archaeology and ethnographic comparisons to modern hunter-gatherer cultures such as the!

Kung San who live similarly to their Paleolithic predecessors. Human population density was very low, around only one person per square mile. At the beginning of the Paleolithic, hominins were found primarily in eastern Africa, east of the Great Rift Valley. Most known hominin fossils dating earlier than one million years before present are found in this area, particularly in Kenya , Tanzania , and Ethiopia. Southern Caucasus was occupied by c.

By the end of the Lower Paleolithic, members of the hominin family were living in what is now China, western Indonesia, and, in Europe, around the Mediterranean and as far north as England, southern Germany, and Bulgaria. Their further northward expansion may have been limited by the lack of control of fire: East Asian fossils from this period are typically placed in the genus Homo erectus. Very little fossil evidence is available at known Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe, but it is believed that hominins who inhabited these sites were likewise Homo erectus.

There is no evidence of hominins in America, Australia, or almost anywhere in Oceania during this time period. Fates of these early colonists, and their relationships to modern humans, are still subject to debate. According to current archaeological and genetic models, there were at least two notable expansion events subsequent to peopling of Eurasia c.

In the Middle Paleolithic, Neanderthals were present in the region now occupied by Poland. Both Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis became extinct by the end of the Paleolithic. Descended from Homo Sapiens , the anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens emerged in eastern Africa c. Multiple hominid groups coexisted for some time in certain locations.

Homo neanderthalensis were still found in parts of Eurasia c. DNA studies also suggest an unknown degree of interbreeding between Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo sapiens denisova.

Hominin fossils not belonging either to Homo neanderthalensis or to Homo sapiens species, found in the Altai Mountains and Indonesia, were radiocarbon dated to c. For the duration of the Paleolithic, human populations remained low, especially outside the equatorial region.

Paleolithic humans made tools of stone, bone, and wood. Excavations in Gona, Ethiopia have produced thousands of artifacts, and through radioisotopic dating and magnetostratigraphy , the sites can be firmly dated to 2.

Evidence shows these early hominins intentionally selected raw materials with good flaking qualities and chose appropriate sized stones for their needs to produce sharp-edged tools for cutting.

The earliest Paleolithic stone tool industry, the Oldowan , began around 2. It was completely replaced around , years ago by the more complex Acheulean industry, which was first conceived by Homo ergaster around 1. Lower Paleolithic humans used a variety of stone tools, including hand axes and choppers. Although they appear to have used hand axes often, there is disagreement about their use. Interpretations range from cutting and chopping tools, to digging implements, to flaking cores, to the use in traps, and as a purely ritual significance, perhaps in courting behavior.

Calvin has suggested that some hand axes could have served as "killer Frisbees " meant to be thrown at a herd of animals at a waterhole so as to stun one of them.

There are no indications of hafting , and some artifacts are far too large for that. Thus, a thrown hand axe would not usually have penetrated deeply enough to cause very serious injuries.

Nevertheless, it could have been an effective weapon for defense against predators. Choppers and scrapers were likely used for skinning and butchering scavenged animals and sharp-ended sticks were often obtained for digging up edible roots. Fire was used by the Lower Paleolithic hominins Homo erectus and Homo ergaster as early as , to 1. The Lower Paleolithic Homo erectus possibly invented rafts c.

However, this hypothesis is disputed within the anthropological community. In addition to improving tool making methods, the Middle Paleolithic also saw an improvement of the tools themselves that allowed access to a wider variety and amount of food sources.

Harpoons were invented and used for the first time during the late Middle Paleolithic c. During the Upper Paleolithic , further inventions were made, such as the net c. Archaeological evidence from the Dordogne region of France demonstrates that members of the European early Upper Paleolithic culture known as the Aurignacian used calendars c.

This was a lunar calendar that was used to document the phases of the moon. Genuine solar calendars did not appear until the Neolithic. The social organization of the earliest Paleolithic Lower Paleolithic societies remains largely unknown to scientists, though Lower Paleolithic hominins such as Homo habilis and Homo erectus are likely to have had more complex social structures than chimpanzee societies.

Similarly, scientists disagree whether Lower Paleolithic humans were largely monogamous or polygynous. Human societies from the Paleolithic to the early Neolithic farming tribes lived without states and organized governments. For most of the Lower Paleolithic, human societies were possibly more hierarchical than their Middle and Upper Paleolithic descendants, and probably were not grouped into bands , [50] though during the end of the Lower Paleolithic, the latest populations of the hominin Homo erectus may have begun living in small-scale possibly egalitarian bands similar to both Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies and modern hunter-gatherers.

Middle Paleolithic societies, unlike Lower Paleolithic and early Neolithic ones, consisted of bands that ranged from 20—30 or 25— members and were usually nomadic.

Bands sometimes joined together into larger "macrobands" for activities such as acquiring mates and celebrations or where resources were abundant. Much evidence exists that humans took part in long-distance trade between bands for rare commodities such as ochre , which was often used for religious purposes such as ritual [51] [52] and raw materials, as early as , years ago in Middle Paleolithic.

Some sources claim that most Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies were possibly fundamentally egalitarian [3] [22] [38] [53] and may have rarely or never engaged in organized violence between groups i. Like contemporary egalitarian hunter-gatherers such as the Mbuti pygmies, societies may have made decisions by communal consensus decision making rather than by appointing permanent rulers such as chiefs and monarchs.

Each member of the group was skilled at all tasks essential to survival, regardless of individual abilities. Theories to explain the apparent egalitarianism have arisen, notably the Marxist concept of primitive communism. Kelly speculates that the relative peacefulness of Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies resulted from a low population density, cooperative relationships between groups such as reciprocal exchange of commodities and collaboration on hunting expeditions, and because the invention of projectile weapons such as throwing spears provided less incentive for war, because they increased the damage done to the attacker and decreased the relative amount of territory attackers could gain.

Anthropologists have typically assumed that in Paleolithic societies, women were responsible for gathering wild plants and firewood, and men were responsible for hunting and scavenging dead animals. Men may have participated in gathering plants, firewood and insects, and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals such as woolly mammoths and deer off cliffs.

Early examples of artistic expression, such as the Venus of Tan-Tan and the patterns found on elephant bones from Bilzingsleben in Thuringia , may have been produced by Acheulean tool users such as Homo erectus prior to the start of the Middle Paleolithic period.

Lower Paleolithic Acheulean tool users, according to Robert G. They decorated themselves with beads and collected exotic stones for aesthetic, rather than utilitarian qualities.

Fallio interprets Lower and Middle Paleolithic marking on rocks at sites such as Bilzingsleben such as zigzagging lines as accounts or representations of altered states of consciousness [73] though some other scholars interpret them as either simple doodling or as the result of natural processes.

Upper Paleolithic humans produced works of art such as cave paintings, Venus figurines, animal carvings, and rock paintings. The earliest explanation, by the prehistorian Abbe Breuil , interpreted the paintings as a form of magic designed to ensure a successful hunt. The anthropologist David Lewis-Williams has suggested that Paleolithic cave paintings were indications of shamanistic practices, because the paintings of half-human, half-animal paintings and the remoteness of the caves are reminiscent of modern hunter-gatherer shamanistic practices.

Archaeologists and anthropologists have described the figurines as representations of goddesses , pornographic imagery, apotropaic amulets used for sympathetic magic, and even as self-portraits of women themselves. Dale Guthrie [78] has studied not only the most artistic and publicized paintings, but also a variety of lower-quality art and figurines, and he identifies a wide range of skill and ages among the artists. He also points out that the main themes in the paintings and other artifacts powerful beasts, risky hunting scenes and the over-sexual representation of women are to be expected in the fantasies of adolescent males during the Upper Paleolithic.

The "Venus" figurines have been theorized, not universally, as representing a mother goddess ; the abundance of such female imagery has inspired the theory that Paleolithic and later Neolithic societies centered their religion and societies around women.

Dale Gutrie's hypothesis that served as "stone age pornography ". The origins of music during the Paleolithic are unknown. This early music would not have left an archaeological footprint. Music may have developed from rhythmic sounds produced by daily chores, for example, cracking open nuts with stones.

Maintaining a rhythm while working may have helped people to become more efficient at daily activities. Bird and other animal species produce music such as calls to attract mates. Another explanation is that humans began to make music simply because it pleased them. Upper Paleolithic and possibly Middle Paleolithic [83] humans used flute -like bone pipes as musical instruments, [38] [84] and music may have played a large role in the religious lives of Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers.

As with modern hunter-gatherer societies, music may have been used in ritual or to help induce trances. In particular, it appears that animal skin drums may have been used in religious events by Upper Paleolithic shamans, as shown by the remains of drum-like instruments from some Upper Paleolithic graves of shamans and the ethnographic record of contemporary hunter-gatherer shamanic and ritual practices. According to James B. Harrod humankind first developed religious and spiritual beliefs during the Middle Paleolithic or Upper Paleolithic.

Fallio, have recently proposed that religion and spirituality and art may have first arisen in Pre-Paleolithic chimpanzees [86] or Early Lower Paleolithic Oldowan societies.

Middle Paleolithic humans' use of burials at sites such as Krapina , Croatia c. According to recent archaeological findings from Homo heidelbergensis sites in Atapuerca , humans may have begun burying their dead much earlier, during the late Lower Paleolithic ; but this theory is widely questioned in the scientific community.

Likewise, some scientists have proposed that Middle Paleolithic societies such as Neanderthal societies may also have practiced the earliest form of totemism or animal worship , in addition to their presumably religious burial of the dead. In particular, Emil Bächler suggested based on archaeological evidence from Middle Paleolithic caves that a bear cult was widespread among Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals. The existence of anthropomorphic images and half-human, half-animal images in the Upper Paleolithic may further indicate that Upper Paleolithic humans were the first people to believe in a pantheon of gods or supernatural beings , [91] though such images may instead indicate shamanistic practices similar to those of contemporary tribal societies.

Fallio writes that ancestor cults first emerged in complex Upper Paleolithic societies. He argues that the elites of these societies like the elites of many more contemporary complex hunter-gatherers such as the Tlingit may have used special rituals and ancestor worship to solidify control over their societies, by convincing their subjects that they possess a link to the spirit world that also gives them control over the earthly realm.

Religion was possibly apotropaic ; specifically, it may have involved sympathetic magic. Paleolithic hunting and gathering people ate varying proportions of vegetables including tubers and roots , fruit, seeds including nuts and wild grass seeds and insects, meat, fish, and shellfish.

The Paleolithic was an extended period of time, during which multiple technological advances were made, many of which had impact on human dietary structure. Some evidence indicates the human brain — the largest consumer of glucose in the body — can operate more efficiently on ketone bodies.

In , the Canadian government ruled that foods sold in Canada could not be marketed with reduced or eliminated carbohydrate content as a selling point, because reduced carbohydrate content was not determined to be a health benefit. The government ruled that existing "low carb" and "no carb" packaging would have to be phased out by In , John Rollo reported on the results of treating two diabetic Army officers with a low-carbohydrate diet and medications. A very low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet was the standard treatment for diabetes throughout the nineteenth century.

In , William Banting , a formerly obese English undertaker and coffin maker, published "Letter on Corpulence Addressed to the Public", in which he described a diet for weight control giving up bread , butter , milk , sugar , beer , and potatoes.

In the early s Frederick Madison Allen developed a highly restrictive short term regime which was described by Walter R. The process was halted if sugar appeared in the person's urine. In , Richard Mackarness M. Mackarness also challenged the "calorie theory" and referenced primitive diets such as the Inuit as examples of healthy diets with a low-carbohydrate and high-fat composition. The "Stillman diet" is a high-protein , low-carbohydrate, and low-fat diet.

It is regarded as one of the first low-carbohydrate diets to become popular in the United States. In , Robert Atkins published Dr. Atkins Diet Revolution , which advocated the low-carbohydrate diet he had successfully used in treating patients in the s having developed the diet from a article published in JAMA.

The concept of the glycemic index was developed in by David Jenkins to account for variances in speed of digestion of different types of carbohydrates. In the s, Atkins published an update from his book, Dr. Atkins New Diet Revolution , and other doctors began to publish books based on the same principles. This has been said to be the beginning of what the mass media call the "low carb craze" in the United States. In the United States, the diet has continued to garner attention in the medical and nutritional science communities, and also has inspired a number of hybrid diets that include traditional calorie-counting and exercise regimens.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 12 September Not to be confused with slow carb diet. This article is about low-carbohydrate diets as a lifestyle choice or for weight loss.

For low-carbohydrate dietary therapy for epilepsy, see Ketogenic diet. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.

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August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Bernstein Cyclic ketogenic diet Richard D. The New England Journal of Medicine. British Journal of Sports Medicine. National Academy of Medicine. Archived from the original PDF on 19 October Retrieved 31 August The National Academies Press. Page Archived 12 September at the Wayback Machine.. Archived from the original PDF on 4 April Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight".

Nutrition Concepts and Controversies 11th ed. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases.

The British Journal of Nutrition. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. Far from faddish, diets based on carbohydrate restriction have been the historical treatment for diabetes and are still supported by basic biochemistry, and it is argued that they should be considered the "default" diet, the one to try first, in diseases of carbohydrate intolerance or insulin resistance. American Journal of Epidemiology.

But in the long term, success rates were not different from people who are on a more 'traditional' diet. These results don't change ADA's recommendations for achieving healthful weight that can be sustained over a lifetime.

Archived from the original on 2 February These diets are generally associated with higher intakes of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol because the protein is provided mainly by animal sources. Beneficial effects on blood lipids and insulin resistance are due to the weight loss, not to the change in caloric composition. High-protein diets may also be associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease due to intakes of saturated fat, cholesterol, and other associated dietary factors.

Archived from the original on 29 August The Heart Foundation found that subjects in research studies achieved more weight and fat loss on the VLCARB [Very Low Carb] diets than on the conventional low fat diets, but this was only in the short term. The Heart Foundation's major concern with many VLCARB diets is not their restriction of carbohydrate or increase in protein, but their high and unrestricted saturated fat content, which may contribute to cardiovascular risk. Mintel International Group Ltd.

Archived from the original on 7 October The New York Times. Retrieved 10 March Archived from the original on 12 May Retrieved 26 July Archived from the original on 18 May Reveals The Truth About Dieters". Archived from the original on 13 October References 1 - Archived 18 March at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 12 March Archived from the original on 8 March Retrieved 7 April The Journal of Nutrition.

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Vegetables on a Low-Carb Diet: The Best and Worst , About.

Put away the (food) scale